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Part 4, Word in Context

Exercises on Pages 132-147

Passage 1

1. (A) The word “set aside” refers to a jam jar that serves a specific “purpose” (line 5) in holding tea leaves, so that A (indicating a designated or specific role) is an appropriate answer. B (indicating an outstanding example) and C (indicating fame and memory) are overly positive for a tea jar, while D is overly negative for something that IS considered useful.


2. (A) The word “true” refers to a fact that Ma Parker is proud of and that she considers as obvious as her own address; this fact is clear or “unquestionable,” so that A is appropriate. B, C, and D are all extremely strong positives and are NOT appropriate to a fact that, in context, is presented as unremarkable.


3. (D) The word “vague” refers to a bush that Ma Parker only remembered “once or twice” (line 48); her memories are not especially powerful, and D reflects the proper context of memory of recollection. A would be more appropriate to speech or expression that uses “generalities” to make (or avoid) particular points; B (explanation) and C (commitment or belief) are both negative terms that avoid the necessary context of memory.


4. (C) The word “dreadful” refers to Ma Parker’s early work and living situation (or “place” in line 50); conditions in this context included confinement and by a cruel cook. C is a strong negative that appropriately indicates feelings of displeasure or dislike. A (indicating something unreal or dreamlike), B (indicating lack of structure), and D (indicating that Ma Parker was in peril) are all negative but introduce negative CONTEXTS that are different from the simple displeasure indicated by the passage.


5. (C) The word “convinced” describes Ma Parker, who in fact “didn’t look so sure” (line 66) and then shortly afterwards “wasn’t convinced” (line 68). This content indicate that Ma Marker did not go along with the gentleman’s idea or was NOT persuaded, so that C is the best choice. A (indicating that Ma Parker HERSELF is truthful), B (indicating fame), and D (indicating determination) all introduce positives that could be negated but do NOT fit the context of discussion and persuasion.

Passage 2


6. (C) The word “consume” refers to products and content related to the arts; people “interact with” (lines 3-4) these products or have an active relationship to them. C, “utilize,” would properly reflect such a situation. A indicates that the products are being used up or depleted (NOT simply used), while B (context of fascination) and D (context of food) do not properly reflect the situation of action and use outlined in the passage.


7. (D) The phrase “bet on” refers to the action that companies took towards “potential mass market hits” (line 26). Companies would naturally support these hits by promoting or investing n them, so that D is the best answer. A introduces the context of thought or indecisiveness, B refers to feelings of loyalty (NOT a company’s practical actions), and C is a negative that calls attention to high risk or uncertainty.


8. (D) The word “explosion” refers to a situation that is notable for the “diverse range” (line 33) of participants and for exceptional scope of the experimentation involved. D properly captures both the positive tone and the theme of expanding scope present in this content. A, B, and C are all negative in tone and would thus all be inappropriate to the passage’s analysis of worthwhile activity.


9. (B) The word “realize” refers to projects that are first organized and financed, so that “realize” would logically indicate the implementation or even the completion of the projects. Choose B and eliminate A, C, and D, since all of these answers call attention to the idea of thought, NOT to the concept of practical or direct action that the passage in fact prioritizes.


10. (A) The word “engage” explains the actions of producers, who are trying to use “less expensive talent” (lines 86-87) for projects. Thus, the producers hope to employ talent that will cost less, so that A is an effective answer. B and C both refer to forms of interaction or discussion that do NOT directly or necessarily entail using the services of workers, while D reverses the needed relationship; the “talent” will be facilitating production but will NOT receive products that are being developed.

Passage 3

11. (B) The word “stronghold” refers to the universities that support liberty by bringing together young and dynamic people. These universities thus enable liberty to have a firm foundation, so that B (indicating a powerful support) is the best choice. A calls attention to limitation (and is thus wrongly negative), C introduces the irrelevant context of wealth, and D indicates accumulation but NOT necessarily defense or advocacy.


12. (D) The word “antique” describes the principles of institutions that fall “into the rear of society” (lines 30-31); the author disapproves of these institutions as obsolete or opposed to social progress, so that D is the best answer. A and C are both wrongly positive, while B calls attention to the age of humans, NOT to the relevance of educational institutions.


13. (A) The word “elastic” refers to a principle that is NOT present in certain countries where learning is “confined to a few” (lines 45-46). These countries are thus inflexible or do not adapt, so that A involves an appropriate context for “elastic.” B and C would function as criticisms of the  “elastic” principle (which the author greets with approval), while D calls attention to the context of imagination, NOT of flexibility.


14. (B) The word “arise” is used to describe “new schools” (line 58) that emerge or are brought into being to address deficiencies; B properly reflects the idea that a problem results in new institutions. A and C both deal with the intensification of a situation that is ALREADY present (not to NEW schools), while D refers to expansion over an area, not to the prerequisite of creation that is the author’s true interest.


15. (D) The word “pervading” refers to a “desire of knowledge” (line 83) that the author sees as characteristic of entire nations and greets with approval. This widespread national trait is unmistakable in Germany and America, so that D is an effective choice. A (“soulful”) wrongly introduces the context of expression or emotion, while B and D both introduces inappropriate negatives.

Passage 4


16. (C) The word “early” refers to a period of exploration that is now “giving way to the next phase” (line 4). This first period would thus be preliminary to further explorations, so that C is the best answer. A refers to being on time to an appointment, B indicates a wild or primitive natural state, and D is a negative that indicates that something is TOO early for optimal results.


17. (C) The word “tiny” refers to a “dip” (line 31) that indicates a decrease in light as related to a shadow; astronomers pay attention to the “dip,” so that “tiny” would indicate the level of keen observation needed. C is appropriate, while A and B are both wrongly negative. D would indicate that the dip is relatively unimportant or follows another factor, NOT that it is the main though possibly hard-to-perceive factor that is of interest to astronomers.


18. (A) The word “vital” refers to statistics that relate to “whole planetary systems” (lines 49-50); these statistics would give complete and meaningful information. A is an appropriate choice, while B refers mainly to expression or emotion. C and D refer to sources of support or power, NOT to the importance attached to statistical information.


19. (C) The word “possess” is used in the context of “seven worlds” (line 69) that could have various features (atmospheres, oceans, ice sheets, and glaciers); a world could naturally be the location or home of one of these formations or features. C is appropriate, while A wrongly calls attention to a theme of fascination (NOT location). B and D both indicate that the “worlds” would at some point be taking some action, NOT that these worlds are simply where different formations are located.


20. (B) The word “mix” refers to the group of specific “gases” (line 98) that would be present on a given planet. Such planets would feature different gases in combination with one another, so that B is the best answer. A normally indicates time (NOT coexistence in space), C is wrongly negative, and D would typically refer to a purposeful group of people.

Passage 5


21. (B) The word “yoked to” is used by the narrator to describe a tour group that impedes or limits his freedom; he would thus feel connected to the group in a negative manner or “encumbered” by the group. B is an appropriate answer, while A introduces the faulty context of being helpless or separated. C and D both indicate that the narrator identifies with or relies on the group, NOT that he sees the group as a burden.


22. (D) The word “imposing” is used to describe what a hotel is NOT: the hotel is not “large” (line 44) and does not have impressive “stature” (line 45). Thus, “imposing” should indicate these positive qualities, so that D is an effective choice. Other choices raise inappropriate contexts: A would best refer to a person who is morally excellent, B can refer to a thing but indicates strength or durability (qualities that do not here interest the narrator), and C mostly indicates that something is suitable and does NOT carry the stronger positive tones that the passage suggests.


23. (A) The word “collections” refers to groups of candies and pastries that are present in Russian hotels but that are not put out in an orderly manner. A, “assortments,” would properly describe a variety of food items. B would better indicate a theme of communication, C wrongly indicates that the food items ARE set out in an orderly way, and D often refers to large quantities of supplies or weapons (particularly those set aside for future use).


24. (C) The word “craved” describes the sense of isolation that the narrator had previously desired and now will have the chance to “savor” (line 59). C properly indicates that the isolation is a strongly preferred state, so choose this answer and eliminate negative answers A and B. D wrongly indicates that the narrator DID have isolation to depend on during his trip, not that he wanted this state, and is thus inaccurate.


25. (C) The phrase “think of” refers to the manner in which the narrator remembers a specific character, a bus driver whose name the narrator cannot recollect (even though the bus driver’s other traits are somewhat vivid). C properly indicates that the narrator would refer to the bus driver in a specific manner as “that quiet fellow who drove the bus” (lines 76-77). Choose this answer and eliminate A, B, and D, all of which wrongly indicate either that the narrator is interacting with the bus driver or speaking to other people about the bus driver. In fact, the narrator has simply decided how he will remember or refer to the bus driver when recollecting the trip.

Passage 6


26. (D) The word “enigmatic” refers to the languages of people who have “little to no interaction” (line 10) with outside societies. The languages would thus be highly specific to these isolated groups, so that D is a logical answer. A and B both wrongly criticize the languages as problematic (rather than simply indicating that the languages are only known to a few people). C is illogical because the passage as a whole indicates that the languages have been studied, so that these languages cannot be “completely” hidden.


27. (D) The phrase “available to” refers to the resources utilized by the authors of a study, so that the authors would logically have access to and then make use of the resources. D is an appropriate choice. A and B both describe characteristics of people (NOT the situation of resources), while C introduces a theme of understanding which deviates from the passage’s actual focus on access and use.


28. (C) The phrase “attached to” refers to “meanings” (line 46) that are related to specific words; a word would naturally be associated with one of these meanings or have the meaning “attributed to” it. Choose C and eliminate A (context of ranking or power more appropriate to people), B (context of placement or movement), and D (context of cooperation) as inappropriate to the context of word and meaning associations.


29. (B) The word “study” refers to an action or endeavor involving languages, and such activity “has indicated” (line 64) particular facts. In finding or discerning facts, “examination” is often logical and necessary. B is an effective answer, while A (more appropriate to laboratory procedures, or to trial and error), C (tone of uncertainty), and D (people improving themselves, NOT necessarily performing a study) do not closely relate to the required topic of observing a specific linkage.


30. (D) The word “considered” refers to a language that was once believed to be the only surviving member of its language family, but “might now have a sibling” (line 89). Thus, this word should refer to a conclusion that, though ultimately questionable, was at one point accepted to some extent or determined to be true; D is an appropriate choice. A (privilege or praise), B (the action of a person, NOT an appropriate word for a fact), and C (to ask after or to seek for) all raise contexts inappropriate to the idea of drawing a conclusion.

Passage 7


31. (B) The word “triggers” explains the action of a specific “scent” (line 9) that generates distinct “responses” (line 10). The scent would naturally cause or “produce” a response, so that B is an effective choice. A would be a possible negative indicating provocation or injury, C would refer to a physical item or force that can be released (NOT to the results of an action), and D would most often indicate the efforts or endeavors of a person, NOT the action of a scent.


32. (C) The word “wired” refers to the brains of flies, particularly the way in which brain activity or wiring “may control” (line 36) specific reactions. Thus, the brains would be set up, configured, or “structured” so that a specific reaction can be controlled or produced. C is an effective choice, while A and B would indicate that the brains THEMSELVES are moving (not that the brains make reactions possible). D introduces an inappropriate negative into a mostly explanatory discussion of causes and effects.


33. (C) The word “sit in” refers to “neurons” (line 45) that occupy a specific region of the brain; a context of physical placement, as in C, is appropriate. Choose this answer and eliminate A (observation), B (waiting), and D (initiative related to PEOPLE) as introducing inappropriate contexts.


34. (D) The phrase “exposed to” refers to the interactions between male and female flies as part of an experiment; here, the flies are presented with one another so that the researchers can assess the reactions of the males. D is an appropriate choice, while A introduces the faulty context of definition and B is an inappropriate negative. C is a trap answer, since the researchers THEMSELVES would pinpoint reactions but the flies (the noun most closely related to the phrase “exposed to”) would not.


35. (A) The phrase “more calming” refers to the “signals” (line 79) attributed to specific flies, which are contrasted with the idea of “lots of excitation” (line 78). A properly refers the context of excitation or agitation, while B (ambivalence or uncertainty), C (emotion or intellect), and D (self-assertion) all raise contexts that would be appropriate to human personalities but inappropriate to measuring the stimulation of neurons in an experiment.

Passage 8


36. (C) The word “power” refers to the activity of people who can no longer “think for themselves” (25) and have thus, despite their faulty reputation as educated men, truly lost this ability. C is the best answer. A introduces the false context of ownership, B is illogical in context (since the men are celebrated as educated and thus have NOT lost fame, though their ability to think has been compromised), and D introduces the false context of motion.


37. (D) The word “color” refers to “protecting” (line 31) actions that are in fact used to promote “barbarous and detestable laws” (lines 33-34). Thus, the idea of color indicates a contradictory line of reasoning, with a faulty principle or “premise” used to justify wrongdoing. D is the best answer. A refers to a theme of change but NOT necessarily to a theme of contradiction or deception, while B (performance) and C (personal trait, and wrongly positive) introduce faulty contexts.


38. (D) The word “grievances” refers back to the author’s discussion of things or conditions that are “inconvenient” (line 53), namely the features of buildings. D introduces the proper meaning, while A and B both overstate the negative tone (since the author ultimately explains that inconvenient features must be accepted). C is inaccurate, since the inconvenient features were purposely structured at certain heights and slopes; something guided by “negligence” would result from neglect or carelessness, NOT from planning that may nonetheless not be optimal for all people.


39. (C) The word “interests” refers to a situation involving minorities and majorities; the author explains that the “weaker side” (line 68) must give in when such “interests” are in conflict. This discussion is thus devoted to competing desires that cannot all be fulfilled, so that a word indicating wants or “inclinations” is an appropriate choice. Choose C and eliminate A (thought in a positive manner), B (orderly differences, NOT the idea of conflict), and D (entirely positive) as inappropriate.


40. (D) The phrase “give way” refers to an action that a weaker group is compelled to perform due to the power of a majority. Thus, the majority exerts authority over the minority, a meaning properly captured by D. A and B would both indicate positive actions (NOT signs of weakness) on the part of the smaller group, while C overstates the minority’s reactions; the larger group demands obedience, but NOT that the smaller group stops to be identifiable in terms of its traits or those of its individual members.

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