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Part 6, Visuals

Exercises on Pages 174-182

Passage 1

1. (D) The y-axis indicates the number of participants in each category. A, B, and C all represent 5 participants, while D (in the July 30 chart) represents more than 5 but fewer than 10 participants and is thus the correct answer.


2. (C) Although the graphs indicate a decrease in the number of participants who viewed the faces as angry, the June 30 graph indicated that a majority of participants STILL viewed the faces as angry within the first 15 days. Thus, an unsuccessful IBT administration would be possible if “success” is defined as a majority “happy” identification within this time period. Choose C and eliminate A and B, since these answers describe results that DO occur and thus would not be helpful in defining an “unsuccessful” administration. D also describes a result that, on the basis of the final chart, IS successfully displayed within the required time period.


3. (B) While the participants of the study described in the passage rated faces only as “either happy or angry” (line 46), the graphs introduce a “neutral” classification that the passage never mentions. B is thus the best answer, while A (“medication”) and D (“beyond four weeks”) consider factors that are NOT considered in the graphs or in the content that explains the graphs. C, however, considers a time period that is considered BOTH in the graphs and in the passage (line 49).


4. (A) The passage develops a connection between ADHD and DMDD in lines 25-31; since these two disorders are closely linked, a consideration of ADHD that charts decreases in “angry” identifications would logically support a study of DMDD that ALSO indicates “angry” identification decreases. A is the best answer, while B considers how irritability is meant to be understood even though this concept is NOT directly considered within the graph content. C and D rightly mention factors that the graphs do in fact omit, but wrongly ignore the overall relationship (fewer “angry” identification) that connects the passage and the graph.

Passage 2

5. (C) Determine the number of individuals in each answer by considering how many individuals (ages 0-5 OR 65-85, distinguished by disease type) are represented by the percentage of each raw number. A (2% of 100 individuals) represents 2 individuals. B (0.1% of 1000 individuals) represents 1 individual. C (3% of 100 individuals) represents 3 individuals. D (0.5% of 100) represents 0.5 of an individual. Thus, C would represent the largest number of individuals to die, as designated by age and by disease.


6. (D) Standard Norovirus is identical to Rotavirus A and Rotavirus D in Mortality Rate for ages 0-5 (eliminating A), identical to Rotavirus A in Mortality Rate for ages 65-85 (eliminating B), and identical to Rotavirus A and Rotavirus D in Ease of Transmission number (eliminating C). However, while Standard Norovirus possesses a Resistance to Vaccines number of 4, all three Rotavirus strains possess Resistance numbers of 7 or 8. Thus, D reflects a valid difference.


7. (C) The table provides mortality percentage rates for two age groups (young and old), and these rates are relevant to both norovirus and rotavirus strains. This table could thus enable a more specific assessment of the passage’s claim that norovirus and rotavirus can result in death, so that C is an appropriate answer. A is incorrect because the table does not call attention to virus clusters OR to research development (though these factors may, according the passage alone, be relevant to virus transmission). B is inaccurate because the passage considers fatalities in terms of percentages, NOT in terms of raw numbers (“millions”). D is problematic because the table, though indicative that the viruses considered can be deadly, does NOT include any direct information about how to combat these viruses.


8. (B) While the final three viruses do not travel in clusters, they actually have HIGHER ease of transmission numbers than the viruses that, in the context of the passage, DO travel in clusters. This information indicates that clustering, though related to easy transmission for norovirus and rotavirus strains, is not necessary to ease of transmission. B reflects this logic, while A mentions a factor (virus survival) that is not directly considered in the chart. C and D are contradicted by the chart, since the final three and apparently non-clustered viruses have LOWER age 65-85 mortality rates and LOWER vaccine resistance numbers than the four clustered viruses.

Passage 3


9. (A) In Figure 1, all three languages have similar words for “father,” while only two have similar words for “wife.” Thus, languages that overlap in some words for men may NOT overlap in terms of words for women. A reflects this logic, while other answers are out of scope and consider more words or factors than are present in Figure 1. Only one word for a man (“father,” eliminating B) is considered, while the number of syllables in each word is NEVER directly mentioned (eliminating C). Similarly, only one word that expresses affirmation is directly considered (“yes,” eliminating D).


10. (B) In Figure 2, information relating to speakers to Tikuna is represented by a dashed line that remains almost constant and decreases slightly in more recent years; at no point has the number of speakers of Yuri, as represented by the line formed of small diamonds, risen above this line. B is the best answer, while A presents a cause-and-effect relationship that Figure 2 (which simply presents statistics) nowhere supports. C is contradicted by the fact that the number of speakers of Carabayo exceeded the number of speakers of Tikuna in the early 1970s; D commits a similar error in assuming that the number of speakers of Tikuna was always greater, and commits a further error in mentioning a “constant margin” when in fact the margin by which speakers of Tikuna exceed speakers of Carabayo has INCREASED in recent years.


11. (B) In lines 56-63, the authors of the passage explain that similar words for “I” and “my” exist in Carabayo and Yuri, a link that is supported by the overlap between these two languages in Figure 1. Choose B and eliminate A, even though the passage draws a link involving the word “boy” (which is NOT similar to any word in Figure 1). Keep in mind that the passage indicate that Carabayo and Yuri have similar words for “father” (NOT Carabayo and Tikuna, eliminating C) and that Figure 1 considers ONLY ONE word relate to a pronoun (even though the passage references more, eliminating D).


12. (C) The passage raises the possibility that the Carabayo language “had not yet been documented until the time of 1969” (lines 79-80), and this information is one possible reason for the absence of data for speakers of the language before 1970. C is an appropriate answer. The possible bilingualism of speakers of Carabayo is never discussed (eliminating A). In terms of the research itself, Carabyao and Yuri are consistently considered DISTINCT languages with possible linkages (eliminating C), while the authors explain that Carabayo word lists from 1969 are apparently the ONLY direct linguistic data on the group (lines 29-33, eliminating D).

Passage 4


13. (D) The chart collects data from four geomagnetic storms, and in each case the modeled cost of damage is LOWER than the actual cost of damage. Thus, storm modeling may underestimate storm damage somewhat consistently. Choose D and eliminate A, since the damage caused by a 1991 storm was lower than the damage caused by a 1989 storm. B and C are out of scope because the kind of modeling and the ability of modeling to prevent damage (as opposed to the direct question of whether modeling accurately predicts damage) are factors that (though possibly important to the PASSAGES) are not present in the chart.


14. (A) The chart indicates that, in terms of actual damage (light gray bar), the 2013 Topeka storm involved the highest number. Choose A and eliminate B (ease of investigation) as an answer that introduces a factor that the chart does not directly consider. C involves a misreading of the data, since the Quebec storm caused over 10 million dollars of damage and the Topeka storm caused just under 15 million dollars of damage (NOT double, despite the large increase in bar size). D is out of scope because the chart considers only four geomagnetic storms but does not indicate that these are the ONLY ones on record, so that ranking the Topeka storm as the most powerful on record would be a faulty conclusion.


15. (B) In Passage 1, Greg Lucas promotes the use of 3D data instead of 1D data in studying geomagnetic storms (lines 23-30). The chart indicates that more accurate storm modeling is becoming possible, so determining whether this shift coincides with a shift to 3D data would relate the chart to Lucas’s claims about the superior accuracy of 3D modeling. Choose B and eliminate A (since Lucas is concerned with data and modeling, NOT with firsthand observation), C (storm size), and D (Lucas’s career) as answers that introduce factors that are not relevant to Lucas’s emphasis on methods and accuracy.


16. (A) While Passage 2 considers the 1989 Quebec geomagnetic storm in some detail, the chart presents a dollar figure for the damage that this storm caused. A reflects the proper relationship. B is inaccurate because, although historical data is presented, the question of whether a research consensus has emerged is addressed by neither the passage nor the chart. C is problematic because the size of the North American power grid is not specified in any clear way in the chart, even though different locations are mentioned, while D is inaccurate because the chart offers information about four SPECIFIC geomagnetic storms, not the somewhat broader information that would help to explain the TYPICAL geomagnetic storm.

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