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Part 2, Passage Details

Exercises on Pages 84-101

Passage 1

1. (B) The first paragraph introduces Monsieur Tremblay and his style of writing, which “suspend[s] time” (line 15) and “restores dignity to a medium that had none of the inherent dignity of pen and ink” (lines 23-25). Answer A can be eliminated since Monsieur Tremblay doesn’t really reveal any motives for confiding in Avni other than the fact that Avni seems to be his proofreader. Trap answer C references “formative experience” such as those of childhood, when his childhood is not mentioned. Answer D suggests that Avni and Monsieur Tremblay are similar, when really they only share two different roles in the writing profession since Tremblay is a writer and Avni only a proofreader. 


2. (D) It is revealed in the first paragraph that Monsieur Tremblay has written an email and that Avni is “follow[ing] along as his prose…” (lines 4-5) describes various locales, Old Montreal being one of them. By Avni’s vivid description of Tremblay’s description of his travels, D is clearly the best choice as Avni makes it seem as though she is actually being transported to these locales through the work she is reading. Answer A ignores the vivid description in lines 4-11, which clearly show Tremblay has intense familiarity with these locations. Answer B incorrectly states that Avni has been to these places, when she is only reading about them in Tremblay’s work. Answer C presumes that Avni has formed an opinion on these places when all that is revealed is that “Old Montreal” has “grotto-like eateries and slow-falling dusks” (lines 10-11). There is no reason to assume that Avni finds this more appealing or intriguing than the other two Canadian locales Tremblay describes.


3. (A) Tremblay’s work is excellent in quality and “restore[s] dignity to [the] medium” (line 23) of writing. Further, in the second paragraph, it is revealed that the attached letter is already “perfectly edited” (line 27), meaning that it requires little of Avni’s attention since she works as a proofreader. Answer B draws on the notion that because the letter is “perfectly unimportant” (line 26) that Avni does not read it carefully, when this is not what Avni means in the description of the letter as unimportant. She means only that the content of the letter is not urgent or seminal in nature. Trap answer C suggests that Tremblay is unaware that his writing is of a high quality, when it is unknow if Tremblay himself is aware of his “Henry James-ian command of English” (line 32). Trap answer D draws a connection between Tremblay’s writing style and his business when it seems as though, at least from Avni’s perspective, the letter she has received to edit is of high quality and does not “require a proofreading service” (lines 32-33).


4. (D) This question suggests that Avni believes herself to, at least in some way, be more certain of what is best in that transcendent thoughts are better left to oneself as she asks in this rhetorical question. Answer A does not resolve any of the questions posed about Tremblay’s background as the central question of why he writes in such a way or writes at all is not ever answered. Trap answer B draws upon the relationship between Avni and her mother which is not introduced until the following paragraph and is unrelated to this question. Answer C might seem tempting since perhaps Avni sees writing so beautifully for such mundane purposes as impractical. However, this is imprecise since it isn’t really impractical per Avni, just difficult to understand since Avni believes such thoughts are better kept to oneself. Further, the text never reveals Tremblay to be fundamentally impractical, only not truly in need of Avni’s services.


5. (C) Avni’s mother is consistently sending “dozens of emails with links to marketing jobs and research fellowships” (lines 53-54) to which Avni responds with “indifference” (line 58). This suggests that Avni has no interest in such opportunities. Answer A is counter to the way Avni feels since she seems to see life as much more than materialism since the “$18 per hour she made as a proofreader was a measure of so few of the things that made life worthwhile” (lines 76-78). Answer B wrongly assumes that the “dozens of e-mails” are an effort at greater familial contact when they are actually an attempt to get Avni to change professions. Answer D wrongly posits that Avni has not pursued a change of career because of fear when the text suggests this is much more from lack of interest. 


6. (C) Avni’s brother is described in contrast to her mother in not sending “helpful” e-mails (or making even a poor attempt at helpfulness) but rather “calling at strange hours” (lines 59-60) and asking “a series of harmless day-to-day questions” with “worry and annoyance” (lines 59-61). This suggests that like his mother, he is worried/vexed about Avni’s situation but does not confront it directly. Trap answer A incorrectly states that Avni’s brother has contempt for her when he is clearly motivated out of concern for her well-being (misplaced though it may be). Answer B can be eliminated because Avni’s brother is not incoherent and seems to correctly recognize that a PhD could or should have more tangible or monetary value than Avni is receiving for it. Trap answer D incorrectly states that Avni’s brother is unpredictable when, though he calls at “strange hours” (lines 59-60), this does not seem to be unpredictable as he engages in this behavior over and over. Further, he seems to be financially successful since he is “making good” on his MBA  (line 71), which would contradict being in despair.

Passage 2

7. (D) the computer game “is showing promise” (lines 2-3), but a larger study is currently being conducted “to confirm its effectiveness” (line 10). Answer A is contradicted by the statement that the game “is showing promise” and the lack of any evidence in the text that the game is significantly flawed. Trap answer B suggests that the game cannot be explained or understood theoretically, when the first paragraph is not concerned with this and is limited to a simple introduction of the computer game and its promise. Answer C is implausible since again, the first paragraph points to the game “showing promise” and does not suggest the game to be “immensely entertaining.” 


8. (C) Chronic irritability and its symptoms are described as “temper outbursts” (lines 19-20) and parents of such children say they must “walk on eggshells” (line 21) to avoid such outbursts, making this condition most consistent with a boy who has a screaming outburst when asked to complete chores. Answer A suggests more of a withdrawal and avoidance, which is not a symptom associated with the disorder. Answer B also does not match the symptoms of the disorder as this action is more of an attempt at social belonging. Trap answer D rightly assumes that a person with chronic severe irritability might have difficulty making friends, but the correct answer is still the best choice as it matches the description of the disorder per the passage. 


9. (D) Lines 40-43 give this information explicitly. “”Leibenfluft’s team set out to test interpretation bias training (IBT), a computer game designed to diminish irritable children’s tendency to view ambiguous faces as angry.” Trap answer A draws upon the discussion of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and DMDD. However, the study was designed to help people with DMDD, not evaluate any other comparable disorders. Answer B correctly points out that IBT is a computer game, but its purpose is not so much educational as treatment oriented. Answer C draws on the fact that the researchers have also started to study cognitive behavioral therapy as treatment for DMDD, but  parents are only involved in how they elect to have their children to participate in the study. The study is not of parenting styles themselves.


10. (C) It seems that one of the problems with people impacted by DMDD is that they “tend to misperceive emotional expressions” (lines 36-37). In interpretation bias training, these individuals are trained to perceive ambiguous faces as happy instead of angry. Answer A might seem plausible as what constitutes ‘happiness’ is difficult to define; however, in this context, the quotations marks are merely indicating that the goal is to have the participants perceive the ambiguous faces as happy. Answer B references one use of quotation marks, but there is no expert testimony in the text. Answer D incorrectly suggests that all parents agree as to what constitutes a “happy” face, when parents were not involved in the assignation of emotions to the faces, only in rating the level of irritability in their children after completing the study.


11. (A) CBT is “a talk therapy” (line 64), and DMDD is a disruptive mood dysregulation disorder that “is associated with risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders” (lines 29-30). That means if children who engage in talk therapy (CBT) do not develop mood disorders, then it might be an effective treatment. Trap answer B links ADHD with DMDD when they do not appear to be related other than sharing the symptom of irritability. Answer C draws upon the idea that CBT is “among the first non-drug interventions” (lines 66-67) for those with DMDD, but it fails to make any statement about the effectiveness of CBT, only the prevalence of use among parents who do not want their children to take medication. Answer D ignores CBT entirely and focuses only on medication to treat DMDD making it illogical since the question posed is about the efficacy of CBT.


12. (C) It is revealed in lines 54-56 that fMRI was used to measure brain activity during the IBT study. This suggests that the role of such images was to assess what was going on inside patient’s brains. Further, lines 77-79 state that scientists hope  “these scans will show changes in brain activity that relate to symptom improvement following treatment.” Answer A wrongly associates fMRIs with use to show changes in the brain related to drug-based therapy, when per the passage, they are not being used as such. Answer B brings in the notion of studying children with ADHD who are not referenced directly as being part of the study. Trap answer D correctly states that fMRIs will be used in a before/after context, but they will be used to assess how the brain changed after therapy, not how children’s abilities have changed.

Passage 3

13. (A) “Pretty” and “dainty” are used to contrast the appearance of  lace bugs with the fact that they are “tough little bugs” (line 3). The topic of lace bugs is not trifling since they have a long and interesting history and anatomical features which appear of great interest to the author, making Answer B implausible. Answer C wrongly assumes that the author is making a judgement about a reader’s possible interpretation of lace bugs as pretty and dainty when the author is merely showing the contrast between appearances and actual characteristics. Trap answer D wrongly asserts that calling lace bugs pretty and dainty is “antagonistic,” when it is only descriptive from a human perspective and not necessarily a reflection of antagonism toward this creature.

14. (C) This river formation is stated as being “a group of basins with exceptional fossil deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming” (lines 18-20), making it a prominent location for which to search for remains of ancient life. Trap answer A does correctly infer that such a formation exists in a lightly populated area, but there is no indication in the passage that it is an “important landmark,” only that it contains fossils. Answer B incorrectly asserts that the site yielded a large number of lace bug specimens when the text reveals only that it yielded four specimens (line 17). Answer D draws an illogical connection between the discovery of insect remains and the importance of the site since the site seems to have been known for exceptional fossil deposits well before the discovery of the lace bug specimens.


15. (C) This choice is supported by the fifth paragraph which explains that it can be difficult to categorize fossils because “time renders DNA, proteins, and other biological material low quality, making it often impossible to use common genetic or molecular tools” (lines 28-31). Answer A takes the notion of the “flashy golf club-shaped antennae” (lines 22-23) too far, incorrectly inferring that such antennae meant that they did not resemble living lace bugs or other insects. Incorrect answer B draws upon the discussion of classification systems that compare physical characteristics as a means of classification, but there is no evidence that multiple incompatible classification systems have resulted. Answer D rightly states that some lace bug fossils have been found in “amber deposits” (line 14); however, these are international locations like the Dominican Republic and Paris, not the specific newly discovered lace bug remains in the Eocene Green River Formation, which is never revealed to be an amber deposit.


16. (B) These analogies are designed to help readers to connect possible Gyaclavator behaviors with other known and more familiar animal behaviors such as those of peacocks and deer.  Trap answer A is refuted by the first paragraph’s description of lace bugs as “tough little bugs” (line 3). Answer C wrongly ascribes a humorous tone to these statements when they are actually quite matter of fact. Answer D correctly recognizes these as analogies, but they reference only the animal behavior itself, not any zoological experiments. 


17. (B) Lines 62-64 describe the way in which all members of this group of insects “show similar enlarged physical structures.” The following lines describe the way that such antennae (physical structures) are used “in courtship as well as male-male competition” (lines 69-70). Trap answer A takes the notion of male-male competition too far, asserting erroneously that all interactions are male-dominated, when presumably only those interactions involving mating competition are between two males seeking dominance. Answer C seems plausible as one would assume that most insects are able to adjust in terms of resource scarcity, but this is an incorrect choice as no mention of this is made in the passage. Answer D incorrectly describes antennae similarity in terms of shape when Gyaclavator have “golf club-shaped antennae” (lines 22-23) while other Hemiptera members have “petal-shaped antennae segments” (lines 66-67).


18. (D) The final paragraph discusses the question that remains since though it seems plausible that Gyaclavator used antennae similarly to other Hemiptera members, this is “hard to say for certain” (line 73). Incorrect answer A states that the informal tone has been deviated from in this final paragraph when the phrase “marched to the beat of its own drum” (lines 75-76) shows this to not be the case. Trap answer B suggests that the explanations of the antennae use are being rejected, when they are being consistently referenced as plausible though uncertain. Answer C incorrectly states that the specialized antennae are a seemingly insignificant detail when they are quite significant and central to the aims of the passage.

Passage 4

19. (D) In the first paragraph, the writer criticizes the editorial writer for a narrow interpretation of “Universal suffrage [that ] did not touch but one sex” (line 17), meaning that it included only a discussion of universal male suffrage. Answer A wrongly states that the editorial writer has contempt for women when it is far more accurate to say that he ignores them entirely. Answer B also implies that the editorial author has some knowledge of or interest in women’s suffrage when he clearly does not and seems to have ignored it entirely. Trap answer C should be eliminated since though the editorial ignores the issue of women’s rights in the context of suffrage, it does not show an explicit eagerness to harm the cause of women’s rights, only to ignore it entirely.


20. (D) Gardner views these pleas “for liberty and justice, [and] equality and right” (lines 24-25) as not unimportant but applicable to women as well as men, which is the flaw in the way men understand the topic of suffrage. Trap answer A goes too far in asserting that Gardner believes few men to have integrity when this is not precisely her argument, which is more focused on the lack of understanding of women’s need for rights. Incorrect answer B ascribes these goals as being pursued by certain remarkable women, when in this first paragraph, the discussion is solely devoted to how women have been excluded from the conversation entirely. Answer C is incorrect since these concepts are mentioned by male writers, just in a context that excludes women from the discussion.

21. (B) This section of the text is focused on the way such gender ideas and bias are so ingrained that it “does not occur” (lines 28-29) to men to recognize the role of women in society independent of and not merely as “an annex” to men. Trap answer A does not consider the final paragraph which seems to suggest a hope that once the language through which men talk about liberty and equality changes to include women, there may be hope, so it cannot rightly be said the current ideas about gender are irreversible. Answers C and D mischaracterize Gardner’s assessment since “sex bias, sex arrogance, sex pride, sex assumption” (lines 27-28) are concrete (though unintentional) occurrences and are not abstract or incoherent since men do not seem to be confused by their actions.


22. (D) In Gardner’s discussion of the rule of the majority in lines 49-58, she argues that it is a misnomer that “does not mean what it says, and it does not say what it means” (lines 57-58) because it represents only the majority of men, not the majority of women. Trap answer A goes too far as the rule of majority is not necessarily depriving women of their few existing rights but rather excluding women from the process altogether. Answer B draws upon the discussion of “the same old monarchial, aristocratic mental beliefs” (lines 53-54) which actually excludes the will of the majority in favor of the will of the privileged minority. Answer C obscures Gardner’s point since she is not discussing the rule of majority as oppressive to men necessarily, just completely void of consideration of half of the population.


23. (B) Gardner uses the musical analogy to describe the limitations of viewing humanity in only “one key” and “played on one chord.” Since music played with such constrictions is quite limited, the obvious conclusion is that so too is the current state of women’s political participation. Answer A does describe Gardner herself and other suffragettes who persisted in their beliefs but this term is not related to the musical analogy. Incorrect answer C is a misunderstanding of the connotation of the analogy since Gardner is clearly trying to show that such a limited view of the language of humanity is bad for all, not honest. Answer D can be discarded since even within the musical analogy, a rebellion would be to go against the limitations of a single key or single chord and play more varied music.


24. (D) Gardner clearly does not perceive the defense of democracy and personal liberty to be “convincing” since they do not seem to understand “that right is not masculine only and that justice knows no sex” (lines 73-74). Gardner simply uses the analogy of an Englishman speaking French only to make her point about the language of the broader discussion about women’s rights; she is not making any points about foreign cultures, making answers A and B both incorrect. Trap answer C focuses on the oppressive nature of governments when the final paragraph is far more about the language of the arguments and the use of the terms democracy and liberty without regard for inclusion of women. 

Passage 5

25. (A) The memory of Vandover “playing with his guinea-pigs” (lines 8-9) is “the only scene he could picture with any degree of clearness” (lines 4-5), making it quite vivid in contrast to his other memories. Trap answer B incorrectly draws an association between this memory and the death of Vandover’s mother, when the memory seems unrelated to the circumstances of her death. Answer C draws correctly upon the vivid description of his father’s business enterprises throughout the passage but wrongly characterizes this early memory as “indistinct” when it is quite clear and vivid. Answer D incorrectly assumes that Vandover’s backyard memory is influential in his ideas about ambition and society when it is far more likely that his father’s business ventures (versus the backyard “scene”) were more influential in this regard.


26. (D) The first paragraph describes one of Vandover’s earliest and most vivid memories. The second and third paragraphs then form a link to the discussion of Vandover’s father by providing background on Vandover’s early life in San Francisco. While it is true that there is some criticism, perhaps, of Vandover’s father for focusing his life too much on his business, such possible criticisms are not present in the second and third paragraph, making answer A incorrect. Trap answer B references Vandover’s ideas about Boston, when Boston is only mentioned in the context of his father’s business, not Vandover’s memories. Answer C correctly asserts that these paragraphs discuss Vandover’s past, but it incorrectly asserts that they link to a discussion about Vandover’s future when no such discussion is present in the text.


27. (B) This can be inferred based on the statement that his father was “forced again into the sordid round of business as the only escape from the mortal ennui and weariness of the spirit that preyed upon him during every leisure hours of the day” (lines 41-45), which is a clear indication that he finds leisure time and retirement from business as undesirable and not “subtly tantalizing,” making answer A incorrect. Answer C can also be eliminated since it is the business ventures that his father finds energizing, not possible retirement from them. Though Vandover’s father might find retirement “laughable” as in incorrect answer D, he would certainly not find it laughable in an entertaining way since retirement and leisure does not seem to suit him or bring him pleasure.


28. (B) This accurately describes the way Vandover’s father “personally superintend[s] the building of his little houses and cheap flats” (lines 47-48) since he is overseeing the process in earnest but not directly participating in it. This lack of participation makes answer A incorrect. Trap answer C draws on the notion that he personally supervises the work but takes this too far since there is no indication that he is relentless or enforcing anything. Answer D should be eliminated based on the word “dabbler,” which seems to indicate that Vandover’s father is only a real-estate hobbyist when he clearly partakes in the endeavor in a full-time capacity.


29. (A) This analogous situation is the closest to what is described in this paragraph since the poking fun of the monies received is good-natured and in good familial fun. Answer B is incorrect since the father’s actions are not rightly characterized as “an intensive discussion” but are rather lighthearted. Answer C implies that Vandover’s father was interrupting some other serious matter with his impersonation when it seems as though the family is not engaged in anything serious at the time. Answer D is incorrect because Vandover’s father does not have a “broad audience,” only his immediate family who seem to already be engaged in the fun and not in need of some method by which to make the content more “accessible.” 


30. (B) The final paragraph focuses on Vandover’s business process and how “people spoke of the Old Gentleman as one of the most successful realty owners in the city” (lines 80-81), showing that they respected his business acumen. Answer A draws upon the line “they rented well at first” (line 79) which might foreshadow some future real-estate collapse, but since there is no reference to this in the text, it must be eliminated. Answer C wrongly states that the paragraph is focused on Vandover’s own opinions of his father’s work when the paragraph is focused on the perspective of those in town. Answer D must be eliminated since it suggests that there is a value judgement about the actual contributions of Vandover’s father when the paragraph is focused more on the public perception of such contributions not the actual degree to which such actions were worthwhile. 

Passage 6

31. (B) These innovators had dreams that did not align with their inventions directly. Einstein dreamed about cows, which are not directly related to the theory of relativity, and Elias dreamed about “spear-wielding cannibals” (line 9) and then invented the sewing machine. Because dreams are subconscious, A is incorrect since dreams are not a reflection of personality. Answer C incorrectly links sleep itself and relaxation with ideas when it is dreams specifically that have been led to these discoveries. Answer D incorrectly says that it is the accomplishments themselves that may seem ridiculous, when if anything, it is the types of dreams and their correlation to such innovations that seems humorous if not precisely “ridiculous.” 


32. (A) The passage reveals that REM sleep, in contrast to being a break from the stress of the day is actually “the brain processing and organizing the day’s thought, sights, and sounds” (lines 32-33) and contemplating things that humans do not necessarily want to think about during the waking hours. Answer B seems related to the notion that REM sleep is a very “intense” stage of sleep, and there is no reason to see this statement as being contradictory to anything presented in the passage. Answer C also seems supported by the passage and not contradictory to it since REM sleep is the way humans organize thoughts, which seems a practical function. Trap answer D is somewhat contradictory, but the passage never states that the “increased brain activity” (lines 27-28) during REM sleep is of a major or minor increase.


33. (B) These line references describe the invention of Post-It Notes as accidents that were discovered in the process of attempting a different invention, and this is analogous to the idea of accidentally creating glue while trying to create rocket fuel. Trap answer A is not analogous since it does not involve an “accidental” invention. Answer C also does not describe an accidental invention or discovery but rather one that is an adaptation from a previous discovery. Answer D describes ways that a single invention can have multiple applications, not the way that some things are invented accidentally.


34. (C) In this paragraph, the author seeks to emphasize the reliance independent inventors have on others, even in light of technological expansion that makes greater innovations possible. This is because “invention does not occur in a vacuum” (lines 62-63) but rather is reliant on what has come before (continuity) and the work of others (community). Answer A stands in contrast to the correct answer since the author is asserting that even in light of this pioneering spirit, these inventors did not operate alone. Answer B draws upon the notion of “rapid technological expansion,” but the passage does not reveal whether this is expanding at a rate that can or cannot be maintained. Trap answer D correctly posits that invention does not happen only on the individual level but incorrectly asserts that individualism harms inventors when this is not mentioned in the passage.  


35. (C) This is revealed by the statement that coffee houses “quickly took hold as everyone from noblemen to street sweepers clamored in for a caffeine kick” (lines 74-76). Trap answer A correctly suggests that these coffee houses were a “collaborative environment” (line 82), but the passage never states that the collaboration was in the domain of financing. Answer B also draws upon the notion that various perspectives among different classes gave rise to the enlightenment, which was, on some levels, a break with tradition, but there is no discussion of the “source of genius” in particular. Answer D should be eliminated because the discussion of European coffee houses, though including information on diverse social classes, does not include information on restructuring or disruption of existing political systems.


36. (D) This is revealed in the following lines in which the author describes the modern patent system as adding “to the archive of mankind’s collective good ideas” (lines 87-88). There is no evidence that the author is defensive about the patent system since he seems to approve of it, making answer A implausible. Answer B suggests the author does not believe in the modern patent system, when he clearly points to an understanding and belief in the way such a system contributes to humankind. Answer C incorrectly states that the modern patent system has been found lacking or to have done some wrong for which the author must forgive it, when the system seems to be operating effectively. 

Passage 7

37. (C) This discovery challenged the previously held belief that “these viruses only spread through individual virus particles” (lines 7-8) and showed that they are spread through virus clusters. Answer A is incorrect because the previous understanding about virus transmission is not useless; it has merely been expanded. Trap answer B wrongly states that there has been a shift in a certain scientific discipline, when it seems that these new discoveries have been all within the existing scientific discipline of the study of infectious disease. Answer D incorrectly states that there is debate about this discovery when it seems as though the research is accepted.


38. (B) The second paragraph reveals that these viruses are common “among young children and the elderly” (lines 22-23) but that luckily, there are vaccines now available “routinely given to babies in the United States” (line 29). This makes answer B the best choice since the young child is likely to get the virus but only if not vaccinated. Answer A directly contradicts the information in the paragraph about vaccines preventing the viruses, making it incorrect. Answer C is unlikely since the virus is most common in young children and elderly people, not people at middle-age. Trap answer D is incorrect because though an elderly person is more likely to contract the virus, there is no reason to believe that a person who receives too many vaccinations is at greater risk of contracting it. 


39. (D) The phrases “really exciting finding in the field” (lines 30) and “we hope that it will provide new clues...” (line 37) provide strong evidence of this enthusiastic and optimistic tone. Answer A is incorrect because Dr. Altan-Bonnet is clearly enthusiastic about the finding, not detached. Answer B must also be eliminated because Dr. Altan-Bonnet clearly believes in the results and is not skeptical about them. Trap answer C must be discarded because though Dr. Altan-Bonnet does seem excited, she is not at all confrontational. 


40. (A) This is revealed in lines 54-57 when it is stated that “Altan-Bonnet and her colleagues showed that polioviruses could transmit themselves in packets, or membrane-bound vesicles containing multiple virus particles.” Answer B draws upon the notion that certain viruses can be “invisible to the antibodies that are in the stool or gut of the host” (lines 83-84); however, this is only something that the researches posed as being “likely due” (line 77) to their hypothesis. There is a caveat that “more studies are needed” (line 84). Answer C is incorrect because vaccines for these viruses existed prior to Altan-Bonnet’s research.  Trap answer D is unsupported by the passage because the researchers used “fecal sample of humans and animals” (lines 70-71) and did not state that one type of sample was more vulnerable to the viruses than the other. 


41. (B) The passage states that sometimes the viruses can be “invisible to the antibodies” (lines 82-83) in the human body; it never says that the human immune system can over-react to them. Trap answer A is supported by the passage since it is revealed that these viruses can be protected “from being destroyed by prolonged exposure to enzymes” (lines 80-81) and as previously stated, can be invisible to antibodies. Answers C and D are incorrect as it is stated that the vesicles deliver “many viruses at once to the target tissues” (line 79) and that the virus “spread[s] more aggressively” (line 87).


42. (D) This is explicit information in the text in lines 89-90: “Handwashing with soap and water helps prevent the spread of viruses.” It is never stated that handwashing is underestimated, making answer A incorrect. It is also never mentioned that handwashing tends to be done incorrectly or without adequate rigor, making answer B incorrect. Trap answer C states that handwashing itself needs to be examined in the future, while it is new antivirals that need to be examined and tested. 

Passage 8

43. (A) The first paragraph presents a balanced perspective in that the author understands the motives of organized labor against a form of capitalist slavery (lines 5-9). However, the author also warns that such unions “organize labor as a monopoly” (line 5). Answer B must be dismissed as there is no mention of labor union leaders in the first paragraph. Answer C must also be dismissed because the author does not imply that the conflict of labor vs. capital is a greater threat than literal war; the author only references figurative “labor’s methods of warfare” (line 14). Trap answer D should be dismissed as the author cites no specific labor policies in the first paragraph.


44. (C) The author uses the first-person plural “we” to place himself as a member of society at large with an obligation to promote positive change. Answer A must be eliminated since the author is referring to himself as a member of society, not as an affiliate of either organized labor or business interests. Answer B is incorrect since though ‘we’ implies a sameness or collectivity, there is no evidence to suggests this is meant in regard to regional or cultural difference. Answer D must also be discarded since it is the reference to Washington and “a generation of extraordinary men” (lines 34-35) that seeks to do this, not the use of the pronoun ‘we.’ 


45. (D) The author’s assertion about George Washington is that he would have failed “without the capitalistic class” (lines 36-37), who would presumably be people with considerable land and wealth. Answer A is incorrect because it does not directly support the notion that “capitalists” were essential to Washington’s success. Answer B is incorrect as the text does not discuss Washington explicitly in terms of his economic policy, only his task of forming the nation generally. Answer C is ancillary to the author’s point since what was happening in Europe seems unrelated to Washington’s success, which was spearheaded by Americans of means.


46. (C) This is revealed earlier in the paragraph when it is stated that many in this group have an instinct only “for self-preservation” (line 43) but when those with loyalties to business do what is right, as evidenced by the example of the United Steel Company and the Congressional investigation, this might lead to improved conditions. Answer A draws upon the investigation that has seemed to happen through the “Republican minority of the Congressional Committee which recently investigated the Steel Company” (lines 47-49); however, this investigation is not said to have resulted in regulations nor that such regulations are needed through the formation of new committees. Answer B should be eliminated since the author is not arguing for redistribution of wealth on a household level but rather better decisions being made at the business-level. Answer D must be discarded because it is more the “well-considered priorities” that must be considered versus a business’ ability to reorganize operations if a strike occurs. 


47. (A) This becomes the best choice based upon the author’s assertion that a military government would lead to instability as revealed in lines 58-64. However, the same statements about military, particularly that “servile revolts must be dealt with by physical force” (lines 57-58) make answer B incorrect since some sort of military seems to be needed. Answer C is incorrect because the final paragraph is about the overall nature of an effective/stable government, which is one that can balance both using military force when needed and one in which “all men will stand equally before its tribunals” (line 82). Trap answer D, like answer C, fails to account for the remarks about military might alone being used to suppress labor. 


48. (C) The American people are at a critical juncture it would seem because “social changes are imminent” (lines 90-91) and these changes cannot be prevented but can possibly “be guided” (line 93) such that the momentous consequences can be positive. Answer A rests upon the assertion that the for “any government to be effective [it] must be strong,” (lines 64-65), but this is refuted by the author’s assertion that such military might alone will lead to governmental instability, which leads to the conclusion that the American people are not totally “responsive to the use of coercion.” Answer B is incorrect because Americans are not unaware of this pivotal change since these changes are “imminent” and the ongoing conflict between labor and capital would seem to make this readily apparent. Answer D is incorrect because it is the author’s hope that the American people guide these changes prudently “as Washington guided the changes of 1789” (lines 93-94), but there is no assertion that they are necessarily willing to be guided by historical precedent. 

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