Part 5, Paired Passages
Exercises on Pages 156-166
1. (D) In passage 1, Lucas explains “This discrepancy between 1D- and 3D-based calculations of the 1989 storm demonstrates the importance of realistic data, rather than relying on previous 1D models …” (42-47). This implies he would be in favor of replacing 1D voltage calculation models with more accurate methods; choose D to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose C, since Lucas is decisive that 1D-based calculations are no longer useful, NOT invested in exploring this type of model further. B can also be dismissed since there is no indication 1-D models can be adjusted to resemble 3-D models, while A can be rejected since these models have been shown NOT to possess a high a degree of utility.
2. (D) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes how 3-D voltage calculations are achieved, while B explains why it is important for these data calculations to be as accurate as possible. C describes the conclusion researchers would have reached by using outdated models. None of these other answers explain why Lucas would advocate for replacing 1-D models with 3-D models, and therefore all should be rejected.
3. (C) In line 36, “disturbed” refers to transmission lines being negatively impacted, or impeded from fulfilling their function. Choose C to reflect this meaning. A (inappropriately implying irritation or annoyance), B (inappropriately implying frustration or annoyance), and D (inappropriately implying something being taken away) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
4. (A) In line 50, “plunged into” refers to how darkness fell over the entire province. Choose A to reflect this meaning. B (inappropriately implying an attack or assault), C (inappropriately implying the province needed the darkness), and D (inappropriately implying something thinking about someone or something) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
5. (B) The author of Passage 2 states that “A report by the National Academy of Sciences suggests that a rare but powerful magnetic superstorm could cause continent-wide loss of electricity” (57-60), using the report to show that superstorms pose significant threats. Choose B to reflect this content. A and C can both be dismissed since the passage does NOT mention that it is expensive to research environmental disasters, nor that superstorms are occurring with greater frequency. The passage also does NOT mention whether the technology used to study superstorms is improving; D can be rejected.
6. (A) The final paragraph of Passage 2 describes the process of how an electromagnetic storm develops; choose A to support this content, since understanding how storms form is important for the analysis the author offers in this passage. C can be dismissed since the passage does not describe any specific disaster, while B can be ruled out because the paragraph describes how storms form, NOT how they are classified. D can also be ruled out because the paragraph discusses generally accepted and well-documented conclusions, not the findings of an individual researcher.
7. (B) Passage 2 describes a geomagnetic storm that occurred in 1989, resulting in power loss to the entire province of Quebec, while Passage 1 describes the value of using 3-D based calculations to estimate vulnerabilities in power grids. Passage 1 specifies that outdated calculation models may have resulted in inaccurate data about potential power outage in 1989; choose B to explain the relationship between these passages. Be careful not to choose A since it is MORE accurate to state that the information in Passage 1 analyzes the events of the storm and power loss than to state that Passage 1 offers a new consensus about the storm. C can be eliminated since Passage 2 does NOT focus on presenting statistical information, and D can be eliminated Passage 1 focuses on presenting original research NOT articulating objections to existing research.
8. (B) Passage 1 describes two different procedures for predicting potential points of power failure, and offers clear support for one method (using 3-D modeling) over the other. Passage 2 focuses on a describing how geomagnetic storms form, the risks they pose, and describing one particular storm. Choose B, since Passage 1 favors one procedure while Passage 2 does not. A and C can be dismissed since both passages clearly indicate the risks posed by geomagnetic storms and both passages connect the 1989 geomagnetic storm to power loss. D can be dismissed since both passages offer a definition.
9. (B) While Passage 1 offers a critique of the shortcomings of data collection using 1-D modelling, Passage 2 implies that these techniques have still allowed for some useful data to be collected, and for useful infrastructure to be developed. The passage states that “These data help NERC draft standards aimed at maintaining reliable operations of the North American power grid” (70-72). Choose B to reflect this content. A can be rejected since Passage 2 does NOT discuss any recent changes to 1-D based modelling techniques, while C can be eliminated since it is overly broad and relies on speculation outside the scope of the passage. D can be ruled out since both passages agree about the extent of the damage caused by the 1989 storm.
10. (D) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes the extent of the damage caused by the 1989 storm, while B describes projected damage that could be caused by a strong geomagnetic storm in the future. C describes why historical data is used. None of these answers explain how historical data has contributed to the development of infrastructure and therefore they should all be eliminated.
11. (C) In the first paragraph of Passage 1, Douglass sets the scene for the current challenges facing America, and the responsibilities vested in Congress. Choose C to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose A or D, since while Douglass does allude to a sense of moderation and to lingering antagonism between North and South, both of these themes are implicit in the paragraph and NOT its main purpose. B can also be dismissed since Douglass’s focus here is on the way forward, NOT on inherent difficulties.
12. (B) Douglass states that “This great measure is sought as earnestly by loyal white men as by loyal blacks, and is needed alike by both” (17-19), referring to equitable treatment of all races in the South. Choose B to support this content. A and D can both be eliminated, since Douglass focuses on a unifying message, NOT on fears or resentment on the part of white Southerners. Be careful not to choose C, since Douglass does not specify particular laws that will combat traditional prejudices.
13. (A) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. B reflects Douglass’s view that people need to focus on reason and logic rather than traditional beliefs, while C describes how rights and laws for African Americans are intertwined with political progress and national unity. D makes an even stronger statement that the future of post-war America rests on the ability to achieve racial equality. None of these other answers explain how white Americans relate to the notion of racial equality, and therefore they should all be eliminated.
14. (A) Passage 2 describes the attempts at providing education to black Southerners during Reconstruction. It describes this attempt as having significant gaps and holes; choose A to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose D, since the passage does NOT go as far as recommending specific improvements to the education system. B and C can be eliminated since the passage is not justifying an unpopular decision, or focusing on a specific group of leaders.
15. (C) In line 58, “envied” refers to how others regarded educated Black men with respect and awe. Choose C to reflect this meaning. A (inappropriately implying an attempt to subvert or attack), B (inappropriately implying going beyond or competing with), and D (inappropriately implying showing a lack of respect or regard) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
16. (C) In line 79, “artificial” refers to how Reformation was imposed from outside of black communities and based off of arbitrary values. Choose C to reflect this meaning. A (inappropriately implying being mocked or satirized), B (inappropriately implying focusing on the display of emotion), and D (inappropriately implying a focus on being carefully constructed) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
17. (B) In Passage 1, Douglass explores a range of goals to achieve greater racial equality in America, while Passage 2 offers a more specific focus on education. Choose B to reflect this content. A can be eliminated, since neither passage focuses on a discussion of authority figures, while C and D can ruled out since the two passages complement and extend each other rather than articulating a strong disagreement.
18. (B) In Passage 1, Douglass does not refer to his own personal experiences while Washington uses his own lived experience to discuss his views on education during Reformation. Choose B to reflect this distinction. C and D can both be eliminated since the passage do not offer radically different views on goals and strategies, and should NOT be seen as being in opposition to each other. Be careful not to choose A, since Douglass’s primary focus is NOT specifically the origins of slavery.
19. (D) Douglass describes his hope that a systematic and equal approach to determining who can vote will be developed and applied; Washing ton would likely agree with this aspiration, since he writes that “Still, as I look back now over the entire period of our freedom, I cannot help feeling that it would have been wiser if some plan could have been put in operation which would have made the possession of a certain amount of education or property, or both, a test for the exercise of the franchise, and a way provided by which this test should be made to apply honestly and squarely to both the white and black races…” (lines 64-71). Choose D to support this content. A and B can both be eliminated since Washington supports, rather than challenging or doubting, Douglass’s aspiration. Be careful not to choose C, since Douglass does NOT connect his goal of full political participation to a naturally educated population.
20. (C) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A shows Washington noting the good intention behind the expansion of education to the Southern African-American population, while B notes the high value placed on someone having a classical education. D articulates Washington’s personal recollection that education was being mishandled during the period of reconstruction. None of these answers reflect the agreement between Washington and Douglass that it was important to find a way to ensure that both Black and white individuals had equal access to voting rights.
21. (D) The study by Jha and Kumar experimented with rats but not with humans. If their study could be proven to be applicable to both humans and rats, their research would more strongly support the claim that lying awake may benefit mental health more than falling asleep. B can be dismissed since there is no discussion of age ranges, or how this data might better support the claim. A and C can both be dismissed since the claim that sleeplessness can potentially have some mental health benefits would best be supported by scientific research, NOT by different depictions in media or popular culture.
22. (B) In line 24, “ill” refers to how sleeplessness can have negative effects. Choose B to reflect this meaning. A (inappropriately implying a lack of strength or weakness), C (inappropriately implying that the level of threat includes potential death), and D (inappropriately implying disgust) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
23. (B) The final two paragraphs of Passage 1 argue that studies show that rats who had a fear response, and then slept had a stronger and more consistent fear response than rats who did not sleep. This argument could potentially be undermined by evidence that it is not possible to discern between fear and excitement in rats, since this would make it impossible to know whether or not rats were actually afraid of the stimuli. D can be eliminated since this information would NOT impact how rats responded to fear-inducing odors over time, and C would also not impact whether or not sleep affects fear responses. A can be eliminated since even if rats do not typically rely heavily on scent, it could still be used to induce a fear-based response.
24. (B) Lines 54-58 specify that “For example, in a study of older men free of dementia, poor sleep, including greater nighttime wakefulness, was associated with cognitive decline.” This statement shows that individuals can have cognitive decline WITHOUT having dementia, which shows that researchers see dementia as only one type of cognitive decline. Choose B to support this content. A describes a previous belief wherein scientists thought that Alzheimer’s caused disturbed sleep, while C argues that poor sleep patterns can increase the risk of cognitive decline. D highlights a finding from one specific study on mice. None of these other answers show that researchers see dementia as one specific form of cognitive decline, and they should all be dismissed.
25. (A) In line 61, “pose” refers to how sleep apnea can cause or trigger threats. Choose A to reflect this meaning. B (inappropriately implying resembling or producing the same effect as something else), C (inappropriately implying articulation), and D (inappropriately implying physical location in space) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
26. (D) Passage 2 discusses studies analyzing the connection between sleep and amyloid plaques , and refers to these studies using language such as “suggest” and “might.” This language implies that the authors of the passage see these studies as significant, but not yet totally proven; choose D to support this content. B can be dismissed since the authors do NOT seem convinced by the authority of these studies, while A can be dismissed since whether or not these studies apply to both humans and animals is not evaluated in the passage. C can also be ruled out since the passage does not go into detail about whether or not these studies are contradicted elsewhere.
27. (D) Passage 1 states that in general “A good night’s sleep has many advantages, including improving our ability to recollect facts or learned motor skills” (8-10). The passages both rely on this assumption that there is a positive correlation between sound sleep and memory, although they use this assumption in different ways: Passage 1 shows how the link between lack of sleep and poor memory could be harnessed to positive ends, while Passage 2 focuses on the destructive consequences of the same connection. Choose D to reflect that the authors of the two passages would likely concur with one another. A can be dismissed, since Passage 1 does NOT disprove the connection between sleep and the formation of memories, and B can be eliminated as well since neither passage provides any evidence that lack of sleep supports the formation of memory. Be careful not to choose C, since while it is true that neither passage establishes a standard definition of a normal sleep pattern, the absence of this does NOT suggest disagreement.
28. (C) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A offers a provocative suggestion that sleeplessness may actually have mental health benefits under some circumstances, while B supports this claim by summarizing the findings of one particular study. D mentions an underexplored area of knowledge which has now provoked further study. None of these other answers support a positive correlation between high-quality sleep and the formation of memories, and so they should all be dismissed.
29. (A) The passages both rely on the assumption that there is a positive correlation between sound sleep and memory, although they use this assumption in different ways: Passage 1 shows how the link between lack of sleep and poor memory could be harnessed to positive ends, while Passage 2 focuses on the destructive consequences of the same connection. Choose A to support this content. B can be dismissed since its statement about Passage 1 is the opposite of the claim that passage actually makes, while C can be dismissed since both Passage 1 and 2 rely heavily on animal studies. D can be eliminated since the passages complement one another rather than standing in direct opposition.
30. (C) Both passages refer to recent scientific studies, and summarize their findings but do NOT quote directly; choose C to support this content. A can be eliminated since providing definitions is NOT the main focus of either passage; B can be eliminated since the research studies cited originate in similar academic disciplines. D can be eliminated since neither passage cites research showing that stimuli can lead to fundamental changes in brain structure.
31. (A) Linton recommends that women develop skills and competencies, but stipulates that those skills should relate to their role as domestic managers and mothers. As she explains, “But the brains most useful to women, and most befitting their work in life, are those which show themselves in common-sense, in good judgment, and that kind of patient courage” (20-22). Choose A to support this content. Be careful not to choose C, since while Linton seems skeptical of the value of education for women, she does NOT explicitly recommend that women abandon their education. B and D can both be eliminated since Linton cautions women away from displaying qualities that are unvalued by men, and does NOT endorse their participation in political institutions.
32. (C) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes how some women proudly flaunt their intelligence and intellectual accomplishments, while B points out that even intelligent men do not tend to like educated women. D argues that women’s natural sphere is within the domestic world. None of these other answers reflect Linton’s view that women should develop skills and knowledge that will help them to succeed in their role as wives and mothers, and all
should be eliminated.
33. (D) In lines 16 and 18, “humiliated” refers to how men will feel threatened and overwhelmed in the face of an intellectual woman. Choose D to reflect this meaning. A (inappropriately implying men will feel unsure of a woman’s affection or regard), B (inappropriately implying men will feel women are finding fault with them), and C (inappropriately implying men will feel reduced from their former stature to a lower one) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
34. (D) In lines 44-48, Diaz presents remarks that readers will recognize as plausibly being made by a happy couple. It is assumed that the sense of a couple taking pleasure in each other’s company will be familiar to readers; choose D to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose A, since Diaz shows these remarks as realistic but never presents them as exaggerated. B can be dismissed since the remarks are hypothetical and general, NOT specific to the author’s own relationship, while C can be dismissed since these remarks indicate a positive situation, NOT one of deficiency.
35. (D) Diaz depicts an enlightened man who values giving his wife time for intellectual pursuits, and explains “In his home shall the true essentials assume that position which is theirs by right, and certain occupations connected with that clamorous square inch of surface in the upper part of the mouth shall receive only their due share of attention” (71-75). These lines show that Diaz sees intellectual pursuits (“true essentials”) as more important than physical labor; choose D to support this content. A shows Diaz’s response to a potential critique of their argument, while B connects a woman’s education to her ability to be a good mother. C explains that once men recognize the value of educated women, they will be quick to support the intellectual development of their wives. None of these others answers show the distinction of the value of intellectual pursuits and physical labor, and so all should be eliminated.
36. (C) In line 63, “feels” refers to how men will come to understand and acknowledge the value of a woman being thoughtful and well-educated. Choose C to reflect this meaning. A (inappropriately implying men will have an intense and possibly negative reaction), B (inappropriately implying this discovery will bring pleasure) and D (inappropriately implying the discovery will be shallow and achieved through informal means) all introduce improper contexts and should thus be eliminated.
37. (B) In Passage 1, Linton insists that women focus only on practical skills because pursuing intellectual and reflective engagement will threaten and undermine men, damaging domestic harmony. In Passage 2, Diaz believes that men and women should share in the pleasure of both knowing that the other has time to read, reflect, and cultivate thought. Choose B to highlight this disagreement between the passages. A and C can both be dismissed since the two passages discuss the role of individual education within specific families and romantic partnerships, NOT broader discussions of political engagement or the impact of marriage as an overall institution. D can be eliminated since the passages do not discuss popular culture.
38. (C) Both Linton and Diaz have strong opinions as to what sorts of activities are appropriate and beneficial for women: the former believes that only domestic and moral topics are relevant to women, while the latter insists women can benefit from intellectual engagement. Despite this disagreement, both passages try to advocate for ways women should think and behave; choose C. A can be eliminated since neither passage positions itself as advocating for gender equality, while B can be eliminated because the passage debate whether abstract thought can be helpful to women, without assuming that its value has already been determined. D can be eliminated because neither passage explicitly calls on men to change their ideas of what is believed about women.
39. (B) In line 13, Linton claims that men have a negative reaction to women who openly discuss intellectual ideas. Diaz, who sees shared intellectual engagement as an enjoyable part of a romantic relationship, would likely respond by arguing that men derive pleasure from women who are intelligent and engaged; choose B to support this content. A can be dismissed since the juxtaposition of inner characteristics and outward appearance is NOT discussed in either passage, while C can be ruled out because Diaz hopes men will appreciate women’s intellectual abilities, not denigrate them. D can also be eliminated since Diaz does NOT discuss intellectual rivalry between men.
40. (B) Both Linton and Diaz want to understand how intelligent and educated men might respond to women with equal levels of education, even though they come to opposing conclusions. Choose B to reflect this content. A can be dismissed since neither passage specifies why women have historically been less well-educated, nor do they blame men for this situation. C can be ruled out because neither author recommends that women be the ones to advocate for better educational opportunities, while D can be dismissed since the passages do not offer this level of detail as to how women behave once they receive an education.