Part 1, Main Issue

Exercises on Pages 43-71

Reading 1

1. (B) The passage as a whole indicates that Avni responds positively to Monsieur Tremblay and negatively (with distaste for their advice) to her family members. Choose B to reflect these decisive or clear reactions. A does not properly capture the fact that Monsieur Tremblay is a positive presence, C wrongly presents Avni as conflicted (NOT as decisive), and D wrongly assumes that the relationship between Avni and Monsieur Tremblay involves negative misunderstandings.


2. (D) Monsieur Tremblay, as depicted in the passage, sends Avni eloquent letters but primarily knows of her from a distance through a proofreading service. D reflects the fact that Monsieur Tremblay, despite enlisting the proofreading service, does not seem to need a proofreader and is mostly interested in sending eloquent communications. A wrongly assumes that the two characters are much closer than they actually are, B neglects the fact that Monsieur Tremblay DOES send along proofreading documents for the sake of form, and C distorts the content of the letters, which deal with Monsieur Tremblay's life but NOT with Avni's directly.


3. (C) The passage confronts the fact that Avni is satisfied with her proofreading job even though her family does not find this line of work prestigious or prominent. Choose C and eliminate A and D (which assume much stronger negatives and indicate a sense of open conflict that is absent from the passage). B wrongly indicates that Monsieur Tremblay, the main writer in the passage, is obscure, when in fact he is simply mysterious to Avni and may be well-known in other contexts.


4. (A) While the passage begins with the positive contact between Avni and Monsieur Tremblay, it goes on to indicate the tense interactions between Avni and her family. A properly reflects this shift from positive to negative, while B (neutral to neutral) and C (negative to negative) do not. D distorts the negatives present later in the passage, since Avni is not in sympathy with her family but (rather than being disillusioned) remains committed to her lifestyle.

Reading 2


5. (A) The passage introduces a computer game that may be effective in making children experience “less irritability” (line 7); after discussing experimental tests of the game, the author notes positive effects and explains that the game may connect to effective “non-drug interventions” (lines 66-67). Choose A, and eliminate B as an answer that focuses on a side topic (scientists’ responses) but OVERSTATES the idea by calling attention to the scientific community “as a whole.” Neither C nor D references the video game research focus of the passage in the manner of A, which calls attention to “experimental findings.”


6. (D) The passage begins with an introduction of a face-assessment video game, goes on to explain how use of this game can decrease adolescent irritability, and suggests a brain scanning application for this line of inquiry. D properly reflects this structure. A focuses on terms (NOT on a specific piece of technology and its outcomes), B is wrongly negative (since the passage mostly lists positive outcomes and possibilities), and C assumes disagreement or divergence (NOT agreement that the technology is promising or effective).


7. (A) The passage indicates that exposure to a video game, an option that does NOT clearly involve medication, can decrease irritability, so that A is an effective answer. The same fact can be used to eliminate C, which is wrongly negatively towards the role of technology use in addressing irritability. B is contradicted by the connection between young people and adults indicated in lines 29-31, while D misinterprets the strong parental reactions to irritability (lines 18-24) for the idea that parents can CAUSE irritability.


8. (C) Throughout the passage, the author provides detailed information about a technology that appears to be successful in addressing a psychological problem among adolescents. C properly reflects this content. A would only be appropriate if the author used clear personal anecdotes within the discussion, while B and D wrongly assume that the author has a unique medical or scientific agenda (a distortion of the idea that the author APPROVES of the research of others).

Reading 3


9. (C) The passage as a whole explains how researchers responded to “four male lace bugs” (line 17) discovered as fossil evidence, particularly how the researchers analyzed the distinct antennae of the lace bugs to classify the specimens. C reflects this emphasis on research findings. A, B, and D all assume sources of conflict or deficiencies in current scientific practices and are thus INCORRECT as answers that attribute negative tones to a mostly neutral and informative passage.


10. (C) The passage begins with an overview of the attributes of lace bugs (lines 1-15), then moves on to an extended consideration of the research surrounding four lace bug specimens. C properly reflects this shift, while A references conflicting theories (NOT new experiments); B focuses on a side topic (genetics) and neglects major topics (overall traits, antennae). D calls attention to experiments (NOT necessarily the same as fieldwork based on found samples) neglects the more general survey of lace bugs that opens the passage.


11. (D) The researchers described in the passage relied on observations of lace bug anatomy and on classification tools such as “phylogenetic analysis” (line 32) to assess the lace bug samples; ultimately, the researchers determined a few possible uses (lines 48-61) for the bugs’ antennae. Such an emphasis on observation and conclusion is properly reflected in D. A distorts an actual topic of the passage (genetic analysis of insects, NOT of non-insect invertebrates), B wrongly assumes that the researchers observed living lace bugs (rather than simply knowing about these animals), and C rightly focuses on comparison but wrongly introduces the topic of computer modeling, which the passage never mentions.


12. (B) In lines 8-20, the author describes the many geographical areas in which “globetrotting” lace bugs have been found over millions of years. This content best supports B. Note that the passage is devoted to expert responses to lace bugs, making A (“casual observers”) and C (“other insect groupings”) answers that introduce irrelevant concepts. D raises a topic (increasing diversity over time) that is easily mistaken for ACTUAL topics in the passage, such as the geographic diversity over a long period time that is characteristic of lace bugs.

Reading 4


13. (C) Gardener begins the passage by criticizing an article that prioritizes suffrage for men but neglects women, then moves on to a criticism of “false verbal forms” (line 59) that exclude women from consideration of political problems. C properly reflects Gardener’s desire to consider women in light of democratic issues. Choose this answer and eliminate A (which focuses on social status, NOT political discourse and debate, and depicts men as more thoroughly destructive than the passage does). B (policy) and D (leadership) involve misreadings of Gardener’s intentions, since she wishes to changes the way in which women are perceived but does NOT explicitly call for the other measures mentioned.



14. (C) Early in the passage, Gardener offers a negative assessment of a writer’s article, which conveys “sex arrogance” (line 14), then more broadly considers how political problems involving women relate to “common language” (line 51). C supports this content, while A wrongly assumes that Gardener builds up her later discussion by referring to her own life (when in fact she mostly refers to the experience women generally). B and D both wrongly indicate that Gardener, rather than REMAINING critical of how men depict women, takes a more positive stance later in the article.


15. (A) Both in criticizing a specific article early in the passage and in later broadening her discussion, Gardener explains that political discourse focuses on men and excludes consideration of women. This content supports A. Although Gardener sees the status of women in political discussion as problematic, she never promotes the creation of new institutions (eliminating B), discusses the history of democracy at length (as opposed to the CURRENT status of democracy, eliminating C), or spends considerable portions of the passage criticizing women themselves (eliminating D).


16. (D) In the critique of the article described in the first paragraph (lines 1-26) and in the discussion of terminology that follows (lines 27-58), Gardener discusses political terminology that has been applied (or NOT applied) to women in a problematic matter. This content supports D. Gardener mostly focuses on large matters of political discourse, NOT on the technicalities of issues such as voting rights (eliminating A). Moreover, she consistently takes an assertive stance AGAINST language choices that she quotes, so that B (negative on the author herself) and C (positive on the sources) are fundamentally inaccurate.

Reading 5

17. (D) The passage begins with a discussion of Vandover’s impressions (lines 1-16) then shifts focus to deal mainly with the career of Vandover’s father. (lines 17-84). This emphasis on the father’s respected work as a businessman supports D; choose this answer and eliminate A (which mentions a detail, the death of Vandover’s mother, that is a MINOR topic at best). B wrongly assumes that Vandover and his father are in conflict, not that they are simply distant or that the father is away from home; C places too much focus on home life, when in fact the passage is devoted primarily to the father’s professional activities.


18. (B) While the passage begins with consideration of Vandover’s perspective, the narration soon shifts focus to consider the business pursuits of Vandover’s father after the family as a whole re-locates to San Francisco. Choose B to support this content. A wrongly assumes that the father is a figure who defies consensus (when in fact he is widely regarded as a practical and successful man), C applies an unduly negative tone to the thoughtful but not necessarily “isolated” Vandover, and D wrongly applies a negative tone to Vandover’s father, who feels that his business activities are suitable and desirable.


19. (B) In later segments of the passage such as lines 46-52, Vandover’s father personally supervises his building enterprises, so that B is an appropriate answer. A overstates his unwillingness to embrace non-business pursuits (since he does not outspokenly hate the arts but simply avoids them). C depicts Vandover’s father as ruthless (a distortion of the passage’s depiction of him as practical) while D depicts him as sociable (a distortion of the passage’s idea that he is energetically involved in his own business, NOT that he is outgoing as a main character trait).


20. (C) The narrator of the passage explains how Vandover’s father habitually interacted with his employees (lines 46-52) and his family (lines 53-61), then explains this character’s overall “plan of building” (line 62) in the passage’s final paragraph. This information helps the reader to understand the normal and repeated activities of Vandover’s father, so that C is an effective answer. A (Vandover) and B (Vandover’s mother) mention characters who are mostly of interest early in the passage, BEFORE Vandover’s father becomes an important point of focus. D (analogy) references a technique that is not prominent in the passage; however, it is possible that a reader would misinterpret the “meaningless jest” (line 60) used by Vandover’s father as an important instance of imagery or metaphor.

Reading 6


21. (C) The passage as a whole introduces the topic of “inventions and discoveries” (line 2), then moves on to consider the different means (dreaming, problem-solving, exchange of ideas) by which such innovations come about. C properly reflects the passage’s multi-sided approach to the history of invention, while A and B wrongly assume a negatively critical (instead of analytic and explanatory) tone to the passage. D is CONTRADICTED by the passage’s final focus in the importance of exchanging ideas in yielding new inventions.


22. (D) The author discusses different innovators (Einstein, Kim Meckwood, the Wright Brothers) in order to point out that inventors have followed a variety of approaches in the overall pursuit of innovation. This content supports D and can be used to eliminate A (since the passage focuses on practical accomplishments, with dream theory as a side topic), B (since the figures are from different eras and pursuits, and thus are not directly in conflict), and C (since the evidence in the passage ALL relates to the common theme of invention).


23. (C) The author notes that “Various theories” (line 28) that relate to dreaming can also be linked to invention or problem-solving, even though these theories have not yet been met with a final consensus. This content supports C. Other answers distort actual points from the passage, since the author discusses both dreaming and collaboration (but does NOT prioritize one of these approaches, eliminating A), links REM sleep to invention (but does NOT say that inventors themselves consciously adopt REM sleep as a method, eliminating B), and references the 1600s (but does NOT in any way indicate that practices have not evolved since then, eliminating D).


24. (A) While the author notes that innovation can arise from the new ideas that emerge in dreams and through social interaction, the author also points out that “a common problem that needs fixing” (lines 40-41) can inspire an invention. This content supports A. B distorts the passage’s focus on the exchange of ideas to focus on the goal of recognition (NOT the goal of invention), C introduces the idea of profitability (which is out of scope, since the author does not discuss the possibility of financial gain related to invention), and D distorts an actual topic (everyday problems) by suggesting that these problems are more urgent (“quick resolutions”) than the author in fact does.

Reading 7


25. (C) The passage introduces “viruses that cause severe stomach illnesses” (lines 1-2), then provides the details of a study that “reveals a mode of virus spread” (lines 31-32) related to these same viruses. C properly reflects this content, while A mistakes the theme of investigation (namely, of how the viruses move in clusters) for the idea of a new therapeutic or practical method. B is inaccurate because the passage emphasizes important findings within ONE field (the study of viruses), while D misstates the problems caused by the viruses (since a “humanitarian crisis” is often linked to social or political injustice) and also neglects the passage’s description of a single research inquiry.


26. (C) The early paragraphs of the passage explain that the viruses that interested the researchers are common and “afflict millions of people each year” (lines 19-20), causing stomach illnesses and occasionally death. C supports this content. While the viruses are deadly and contagious, the question of how or whether they adapted (DIFFERENT from the question of how they are transmitted) is not of interest to the author (eliminating A). Note that the deadliness  and special transmission method of the viruses are emphasized in the passage, NOT the absence of research on them (unlikely because the viruses are well-known, eliminating B) or the difficulties in classifying them (eliminating D).


27. (A) While the opening paragraphs (lines 1-29) focus on the attributes of norovirus and rotavirus, the remaining paragraphs explain the research that Altan-Bonnet led in order to assess the transmission of these viruses. This content supports A. B and C both neglect the opening discussion of the viruses’ characteristics to focus exclusively on the experiment described in the passage. D misconstrues an actual detail of the passage (quotations from Altan-Bonnet) for a major structural feature, “firsthand accounts,” that would be different from the synopsis of research that the passage in fact contains.


28. (B) In responding to Altan-Bonnet’s work, the author of the passage notes that “More studies are needed” (line 84), but still notes that practical measure such as handwashing can be adopted in response to the findings. B represents an accurate response to this content, while A overstates the uncertainties surrounding the research and assumes that other researchers (who are not quoted directly) object to Altan-Bonnet’s ideas. The absence of perspectives from other researchers ALSO eliminates C, while D returns to an actual topic (cruise ship outbreaks) but presents an overly positive research result that is NOT directly mentioned in the passage.

Reading 8


29. (D) The author analyzes the economic and social forces that could “disrupt our society” (line 27) and calls attention to the potential “revolt against the existing order” (lines 55-56). This focus on negative factors within society supports D, while the author’s focus on economic forces (NOT voting and electoral participation) eliminates A. The author’s clear concern over the social situation makes B (despite Adams’s understanding of the perspective of labor) much too lenient in meaning, while C is inaccurate because the passage endorses economic analysis but does not necessarily or directly critique those who omit such analysis.


30. (B) In lines 41-52, Adams explains how those with economic power can take a moderate approach; he later endorses “concessions” (line 75) or compromises from capital. This content supports B and contradict both A and C, since the compromises that Adams envisions are DESIGNED to avert class conflict and are presented as promising, constructive measures that workers might accept. D is problematic because the theme of conformity (making people the same) is NOT central to the passage, though themes that are easily mistaken for this one (freedom from oppression, working together) are.


31. (A) Throughout the passage, Adams explains conditions of social unrest by evaluating the perspectives of BOTH powerful people and beleaguered laborers, so that A accurately reflects both his tone of concern and his focus on multiple points of view. Choose this answer and eliminate B, which wrongly assumes that Adams does not have a strong opinion and is “impartial.” C does not align with the fact that Adams hopes to promote cooperative arrangements between workers and capital (rather than unfairly vilifying capital) while D does not capture the tone of concern or uncertainty about the political future that informs the entire passage.


32. (A) In lines 30-40 and 89-94, Adams points to George Washington’s situation as a meaningful (though not completely interchangeable) precedent for the situation that Adams’s own era faces. This content is properly reflected by A. B distorts an actual technique of the passage (citing antagonistic groups but NOT lingering over misinterpretations), C distorts the scope of the passage (since labor movements are discussed but their origins are NOT a focus), and D is contradicted on the level of writing technique by the absence of “you” or “we” references in the passage, even though Adams would appear to approve of national harmony.



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