Part 3, Command of Evidence
Exercises on Pages 110-125
1. (C) The passage opens with a description of the messy and untended state of the literary gentleman’s apartment, since he is not interested in housekeeping. As the passage states, “The result looked like a gigantic dustbin. Even the floor was littered with toast crusts, envelopes, cigarette ends.” (14-16) Choose C to reflect this content; be careful not to choose D since the squalor of the apartment does NOT necessarily imply a lack of financial means. A and B can also be dismissed since the description of the apartment explicitly states it is NOT well-defined, and the disorder does not seem to have been an intentional creation.
2. (C) See the previous answer for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes the minimal amount of cleaning and tidying that the gentleman is willing to engage in, while B shows that the gentleman is satisfied with his way of keeping house. D describes Ma’s reaction to the messy apartment. None of these other answers provide evidence that the apartment becomes messy whenever Ma is not around, and so they should all be dismissed.
3. (B) Lines 53-55 describe how a cook, who was one of Ma Parker’s co-workers, used to steal her letters from her. This incident indicates that, before she came to work for the literary gentleman, Ma Parker’s working life was unhappy because of the way her co-workers treated her. Choose B. Be careful not to choose C, since the passage describes some co-workers being unkind to her but this does NOT necessarily imply that she never forms friendships. A and D can also be eliminated since there is no mention of Ma suffering from consistent ill health, and her failure to understand the allusion to Shakespeare’s birthplace does not seem to directly impact her working life.
4. (D) See the previous answer for analysis of the correct line reference. A shows Ma’s incomprehension of the knowledge that Shakespeare was born in her hometown, while B mentions Ma having been hospitalized a number of times. C describes Ma’s limited freedom in one of her previous jobs. None of these other answers illustrate how she has been previously mistreated by co-workers, and so they should all be eliminated.
5. (B) Lines 27-31 describe how Ma Parker has repeatedly overheard people talking about how difficult her life has been. Choose B to show that she is aware of how she is perceived by others. A describes her own reflection that her life has been difficult, while C describes the gentleman’s reaction to learning about Ma’s life. D focuses on the differing perspectives Ma and the gentleman seem to hold about her past. None of these other answers illustrate Ma’s awareness that she knows other people agree that her life has been difficult, and all should be dismissed.
6. (A) Lines 31-34 state “This trend has led to an explosion in experimentation in content and form, and generated a more diverse range of creators and audiences,” indicating that online platforms have led to diversity and innovation. Choose A to reflect this content. B can be dismissed since the passage discusses spaces for innovation and collaboration, but NOT social media oriented sites specifically. C and D can be ruled out since the passage implies that online platforms may lead to greater exposure for emerging artists, but NOT necessarily revenue, and there is no connection made between these platforms and resurgence of interest in neglected artists.
7. (C) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes what new technological tools allow artists to do, while B focuses on changes in finance and revenue streams within creative industries. D describes one case study of a specific individual whose use of accessible technology allowed him to become very well-known. None of these other answers describe how changing technology has generated creative innovation and risk-taking, and so they should all be eliminated.
8. (A) Lines 8-12 qualify which creative fields are likely to be most strongly impacted by changing technology, explaining that these impacts are important “especially in fields with reproducible products such as music, writing, photography, and film.” Choose A. B focuses on the significance of technological changes in some fields without specifying which fields, while C explains that changing technology has altered the goals of what some artists hope to achieve with their work. D points out one negative impact of changing technology. None of these other answers describe how technology likely impacts different fields to varying extents, and therefore all should be eliminated.
9. (D) In lines 83-85, the authors shift their focus from describing the positive effects of technology to acknowledging some negative ones, explaining that “There are many positive benefits of these developments, but there are downsides to these trends as well.” These lines signal that in the final section of the passage, the authors move from praising the benefits of a trend to discussing potential downfalls; choose D. Be careful not to choose B, since while the passage includes some specific examples, it is NOT primarily composed of inspiring stories. C can be dismissed since the authors show enthusiasm for new technologies but do NOT focus on public reaction. A can also be ruled out since the passage does not make any predictions for how this technology can be expanded.
10. (B) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes how technology can lead to cross-disciplinary collaboration, while C offers an informed perspective to support a claim that technology is shifting the availability and location of some types of creative work. D explains the extent of the disruption that technology has triggered, and the potential negative impact it can have. None of these other answers reflect the transition the authors make when they shift to articulating the negative effects creative technologies may have, and so they should all be eliminated.
11. (B) Lines 26-31 warn that universities need to embrace their role as places designed to foster liberty and innovative ideas or else they will fall out of step with society; this content supports this idea that ideals of liberty are beneficial to universities. A suggests a possible connection between universities and revolutionary ideas, while C notes that travelers visiting universities in different countries are well-positioned to observe and notice what is distinct about those institutions. D describes how in different places education is pursued with different goals. None of these other answers describe the connection between universities and ideas of liberty, and therefore they should all be dismissed.
12. (D) Lines 36-40 argue that universities in different regions differ dramatically from one another and that these differences in education reflect different cultural values; choose D to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose C because while Martineau does not contradict that universities serve to educate civic and national leaders, this is not her central point. A and B can both be eliminated since Martineau does not focus her argument on discussing different types of educational training, or the implications of a well-educated population.
13. (B) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A draws a connection between ideas of liberty and the role of the university while C draws a connection between more people attending university and the growth of an educated population. D contrasts older, more established educational institutions and newer ones. None of these other answers describe the connection between universities and cultural values, and therefore all should be dismissed.
14. (C) In lines 89-93, Martineau describes how Americans who have completed a university degree still focus on very pragmatic career outcomes and live practical lives. This content suggests she believes Americans value education for practical purposes; choose C to reflect this content. A can be dismissed since Martineau does not appear to prefer the American outlook on education over the European one, while B and D can be dismissed since Martineau’s comments on well-educated Americans do not imply that education is connected to supporting small communities or promoting skepticism.
15. (D) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes how university education is made fairly widely available in America, while B connects some of the values of the American university system to the reality of America being a young nation. C describes how many people in both America and Germany are eager to attend university. None of these other answers reflect an American outlook which values practical education, and therefore they should all be eliminated.
16. (D) Lines 13-16 state that “Direct imaging of exoplanets—that is, actual pictures—will play an increasingly larger role” in the understanding of exoplanets; this implies that indirect methods are no longer the only options available to astronomers. Choose D to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose C since the author indicates that direct imaging is becoming more available but NOT that it will entirely replace indirect imaging. A and B can be eliminated since the author describes how indirect methods work, but NOT whether they made classification difficult, or whether they were based on unusual circumstances.
17. (B) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes how advances in telescope technology will allow for classification of exoplanets, while C describes how the “wobble method” of indirect observation works. D states the date and scientists involved in the very first observation of an exoplanet. None of these other answers show that additional options beyond indirect observation are becoming available to scientists.
18. (C) Lines 44-46 state that “Wobble detections provide the mass of the planet, but give no information about the planet’s girth, or diameter.” By highlighting what information wobble detections can NOT provide to scientists, this content implies that the radial velocity method (informally known as the wobble method) is not a comprehensive source of information about exoplanets. Choose C to reflect this content. A states how many exoplanets have been discovered using radial velocity, while B describes how an alternative method works. D describes what information has been uncovered about a specific group of planets. None of these other answers describe the limitations of the radial velocity method, and therefore all should be dismissed.
19. (A) Lines 98-100 state that “Such a mix of gases would remind us strongly of our own atmosphere, possibly indicating the presence of life.” This implies that a planet where the atmosphere is composed of gases similar to those found in Earth’s atmosphere is more likely to contain life; choose A to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose D, since the author implies that close analysis of large exoplanets is likely to be achieved with more advanced technologies, NOT with direct imaging technologies. A and B can both be dismissed since the author does not focus on discussing the density of exoplanets relative to Earth, or on how features other than atmospheric composition might signal the presence of life.
20. (D) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A states that while many more features remain to be discovered about TRAPPIST 1 planets, they are well-studied, while B identifies a specific category of exoplanet that is likely to be targeted for analysis. C provides scope for the current limitations on how much is known about exoplanets. None of these other answers support the claim that atmospheric composition can be an indication of whether or not a planet harbors life, and therefore all should be dismissed.
21. (B) In lines 1-3, the narrator reflects that “I doubt that many people would look out at a tan-and-black landscape under a gray sky and think, “I am free. I am free!” These lines imply that he feels a pleasure in the Icelandic landscape which he does not believe others would be likely to share: choose B to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose A, since Dominic does suggest that many people would find the landscape unappealing, but does NOT connect this response to familiarity. C can be dismissed since Dominic does not focus on whether or not the landscape is intellectually engaging, and D can be dismissed since the landscape inspires a sense of liberation for him, NOT discomfort.
22. (A) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. B describes Dominic’s positive response to occupying a nearly empty bus, while C identifies the only other passengers on the bus. D describes Dominic surveying the streets for other people, and feeling disappointment at their absence. None of these other answers contrast the narrator’s response to the landscape to that generally held by other people, and therefore they should all be dismissed.
23. (C) Lines 77-80 describe how Dominic feels a sense of comradeship with the bus driver since he believes they both disliked the presence of other passengers. Choose C to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose D, since while Dominic does feel that the driver likely shared his beliefs, there is nothing to suggest the driver had difficulty expressing himself. A and B can be eliminated since Dominic saw the driver as sharing his perspective, NOT introducing a new one, and he perceived himself as on equal footing with the driver.
24. (D) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes the efforts Dominic made to avoid socializing with other passengers, while B reveals that Dominic only recalls details about the tour guide and driver, not any of the other passengers. C distinguishes between the way Dominic recalls his fellow travelers and the driver. None of these other answers show that Dominic felt sympathy for the driver and shared feelings with him, and therefore they should all be eliminated.
25. (C) The narrator describes how after spending a long time longing to be free from the tour group, he is now not as happy as he expected to be. This implies that he is not entirely happy to be rid of the tour group; choose C to reflect this content. A describes the effect of the narrator realizing he is now the one being ignored by other travelers, while B describes the initial eagerness the narrator feels upon beginning his solitary travels. D describes the experiences that have ended now that he is no longer part of a tour group. None of these other answers indicate the narrator’s ambivalence about separating from the tour group, and therefore they should all be eliminated.
26. (A) Lines 11-12 state that “Many of these groups choose to remain uncontacted by the rest of the world.” The claim here that indigenous Amazonian people have purposefully isolated themselves contradicts the claim that their lifestyle has been impacted by modernization. Choose A to reflect this content. B connects the isolation of these groups to a lack of linguistic information, while C identifies one connection linguistic researchers were able to make. D describes the history of another Amazonian language. None of these other answers make a claim that would challenge the claim described in the other article, and therefore they should all be eliminated.
27. (B) Lines 29-33 describe how researchers had to rely on wordlists gathered from a 1969 encounter with the Carabayo people since this was the only linguistic data available. This content implies that researchers were challenged by the scarcity of information about the Carabayo language; choose B to support this content. Be careful not to choose A, since while it likely would be difficult to find speakers of Carabayo, this is NOT the most immediate difficulty faced by researchers. C can be dismissed since the challenge is the absence of previous research, NOT accuracy, while D can be ruled out because the article shows that parallels between Yuri and Carabayo words have been detected.
28. (B) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A identifies the research topic explored in the rest of the passage, while C describes one part of the research process. D explains one consideration the researchers took into account. None of these other answers explain how the absence of information about the Carabayo language created challenges for researchers, and therefore they should all be dismissed.
29. (C) Lines 67-70 describe how the presence of the same pronoun in both the Carabayo and Yuri language likely indicates that the two languages share a genealogical origin; choose C to support this content. A can be eliminated since geographical proximity alone does NOT imply that languages have shared origins, while B can be eliminated there is no data mentioned about changes in pronunciation. D can also be ruled out because researchers did NOT conclusively determine that many everyday words were in fact shared by the two languages.
30. (B) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A indicates which words were found to be shared in the Yuri and Carabayo languages, while C describes how the findings of this linguistic research have altered previous understandings. D states that the Tikuna language might now have a related language. None of these other answers describe the grounds on which a connection was established between the Yuri and Carabayo languages, and therefore all should be eliminated.
31. (B) Lines 34-37 describe how Ruta’s research expanded on previous research: earlier studies had found that different male flies had different responses to the same pheromone and Ruta’s team developed a possible explanation for why this was the case. Choose B to reflect this content. A and C can both be dismissed since, while reproductive decisions are connected to evolution, the focus of the study is NOT directly related to evolution in fruit flies. D can also be ruled out since the primary focus of Ruta’s research was brain function, NOT anatomy.
32. (B) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes where the study results were published, and the research question they were seeking to answer. C describes how pheromones are detected and processed by fruit flies, while D explains one finding from the experiment. None of these other answers connects Ruta’s research to previous studies, and therefore they should all be eliminated.
33. (B) Lines 59-63 describe how Ruta’s research relied on technology enabling the scientists to be able to observe when the brain cells of flies lit up in response to specific stimuli. Since technology is thus identified as an important component of Ruta’s research, choose B. A can be eliminated since Ruta was not studying aggression responses, while C can be eliminated since the difference between the two fly species was already established. D can also be ruled out since there is no discussion of where or how the pheromones were produced.
34. (D) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A connects a study of fruit flies to wider-ranging brain research, while B provides an overview of who lead the research team, and what the team was seeking to investigate. C features a quote from Dr. Ruta explaining why the brains of flies have evolved in a particular way. None of these other answers demonstrate that innovative technology was integral to the research, and therefore they can all be eliminated.
35. (C) Lines 72-76 state that in two different species of fruit fly, sensory information was conveyed to the brain in different ways. Choose C to support this content. A features a quote from an expert evaluating the impact of the study’s findings, while B suggests that P1 neurons are likely important in multiple species of fruit fly. D points towards future research studies. None of these other answers indicate how two different species process sensory information in different ways, and therefore all should be eliminated.
36. (B) In lines 6-9, Shaw describes how schools are convenient and accessible if someone is seeking an institution where social conformity will be imposed. This implies he believes education exists as a tool to impose conformity; choose B to reflect this content. Be careful not to choose A since while it seems likely innovators would dislike the education system, Shaw does NOT explicitly state this. C and D can also be eliminated since Shaw does not discuss whether or not educational institutions effectively resist Anarchism, nor does he imply that schools propagate strange perspectives.
37. (A) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. B offers a hypothetical critique that a non-conformist might make about the current education system, while C complains about dress as a form of imposed social conformity. D notes that individuals who hold radical and outlandish views are unlikely to be persecuted as a result of these views. None of these others answers articulate Shaw’s belief that education is convenient and widely available to those holding conventional beliefs, and therefore all should be eliminated.
38. (C) In lines 39-41, Shaw argues that an eccentric individual is likely to believe that, living in a world where conformity is valued, his or her originality is less valuable than someone who thinks like everyone else. Choose C to reflect this content. A describes some of the grounds on which an individual might dissent from social norms during Shaw’s lifetime, while B describes a potential objection to having tax dollars put towards military and police forces. D describes how someone might become sufficiently frustrated with the pressure to conform and end up holding Anarchist beliefs as a result. None of these other answers explain why an eccentric individual would feel socially disadvantaged, and therefore all should be eliminated.
39. (A) In lines 62-65, Shaw states that the will of the majority will typically dominate, even if there is no truly logical reason for why this ought to be the case. This content implies he saw the will of the majority as likely to control decisions and policy but not rationally justified; choose A. Be careful not to choose D, since Shaw does view of the dominance of the majority as problematic but NOT specifically because they tend to promote short-sighted policies. B and C can be eliminated since Shaw does NOT indicate that there is either widespread support or useful outcomes associated with majority rule.
40. (B) See the previous answer explanation for analysis of the correct line reference. A describes how individuals rejecting social conformity will not fix the damaging effects of majority domination, even if many came to feel this way. C qualifies that the desires of the majority and minority are not always necessarily in conflict, while D notes that in most cases the majority will not seek to persecute individuals with socially dissenting opinions. None of these other answers assert the unjustified dominance of majority opinion and therefore all should be eliminated.